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Probably the amount and extent of wars existing north of Mexico in Pre-Columbian times were not as large as is generally stated. The missionary labours of the various Christian churches among the North American aborigines have been ably summarized Missions and Education. Thus in the Mistawasis band of Cree, belonging to the Carlton Agency, province of Saskatchewan, numbering but , there are 6 Anglicans, 86 Presbyterians and 37 Catholics; in the Oak River band of Sioux in Manitoba there are 60 Anglicans, 1 Presbyterian, 13 Methodists, 4 Catholics and pagans out of a total of The history of missionary labours in North America among the aborigines contains stories of disappointment and disaster as well as chronicles of success.

But the thousands of good church-members, including many ministers of the Gospel, in Canada and the United States, coming from scores of different tribes and many distinct stocks, no less than the general good conduct of so many Indian nations, are a remarkable tribute to the work done by Catholic and Protestant missionaries alike all over the broad continent from the Mexican border to the snows of Greenland and the islands of the Arctic. The martyrdom of the Jesuits among the fierce Iroquois, the zeal of Duncan at Metlakahtla, the fate of the Spanish friars in the Pueblos rebellion of under Pope, the destruction of the Huron missions in and of those of the Apalachee in , the death of Whitman at the hands of the Cayuse in , are but a few of the notable events of mission history.

Californian Indians. In that year the missions counted 30, Indians and produced , bushels of wheat and corn. The mission-buildings of brick and stone contained besides religious houses and chapels, school-rooms and workshops for instruction in arts and industries, and were surrounded by orchards, vineyards and farms. But, in the words of Mooney Handb. The death-rate was so enormous, in spite of apparent material advancement, that it is probable that the former factor alone would have brought about the extinction of the missions within a few generations. When the supervision of the missionaries no longer sustained them the Indians fell to pieces and the practical results of seventy years of labour and devotion were lost.

These missions flourished, in spite of wars and other adverse circumstances, till the invasion of the Huron country in Ontario by the Iroquois in and again in brought about their destruction and the dispersal of the Hurons who were not slain or carried off as prisoners by the victors. The Wyandots, now in Oklahoma, are another fragment of the scattered Hurons. The Wyandots of Oklahoma are largely Protestants. The mission among the Mohawks of New York was established in by Father Jogues afterwards martyred by the Indians , and in the church at Onondaga was built, while during the next few years missions were organized among the Oneida, Cayuga and Seneca, to cease during the warlike times of , after which they were again established among these tribes.

Another mission at Oswegatchie, founded in , was abandoned in The Episcopal missions among the Iroquois began early in the 18th century, the Mohawks being the first tribe influenced, about The extension of the work among the other Iroquoian tribes was aided by Sir William Johnson in the last half of the century and by Chief Joseph Brant, especially after the removal of those of the Iroquois who favoured the British to Canada at the close of the War of Independence.

In the Congregationalists established a mission among the New York Oneida, and later continued their labours also among the Oneida of Wisconsin. The Congregational mission among the New York Seneca began in In —, at the request of Chief Cornplanter, the Pennsylvania Quakers established missions among the Oneida, Tuscarora and Seneca.

David Zeisberger about The Methodist missions among the Ontario Iroquois date from Among the New York Iroquois great variety of religious faith also exists, the Presbyterians largest , Methodists, Episcopalians and Baptists being all represented. The missionaries in this region were chiefly Franciscans, who succeeded the Jesuits.

Ihey were very successful among the Apalachee, but these Indiana were constantly subject to attack by the Yamasi, Creek, Catawba and other savage peoples, and in — they were destroyed or taken captive, and the missions came to an end. A few of the survivors were gathered later at Pensacola for a time.

From to the Moravians beginning under Spangenberg had a mission school among the Yamacraw, a Creek tribe near Savannah. In a Presbytenan mission was established among the Choctaw on the Yalabusha river in northern Mississippi, to which went in the Rev. Cyrus Byington, the Eliot mission over which he presided there and in the Indian Territory till being one of great importance. The Baptist missions among the Choctaw began in and among the Creek in In a Methodist mission was established among the Creek, but soon abandoned, to be reorganized later on.

The missionaries among the Muskogian tribes during the last half of the 18th century. This is true likewise of labourers in the mission-field among the Algonkian, Iroquoian, Athabaskan, Siouan and bahshan tribes and among the Eskimo. John Eliot q. In his work Eliot, like many other missionaries, had the assistance of several Indians. When in the withdrawal by the United States of government aid to denominational schools occurred, it compelled some of the weaker churches to give up such work altogether, and interfered much with the activities of some of the stronger ones.

According to the statistics given by Mooney Handb. Playthings, toys and children's games were widespread. Corporal punishment was little in vogue, the Iroquois e. As the treatment of the youth at puberty by the Omaha e. In some tribes, however, the tribal consciousness overpowered altogether children and youth. Parental affection among some of the peoples north of Mexico reached as high a degree as with the whites, and devices for aiding, improving and amusing infants and children were innumerable.

Fletcher, J. Dorsey, J. Mooney, W. Outside of missions proper there were many efforts made by the colonists to educate the Indians. It is an interesting fact, emphasized by James in his English Institutions and the American Indian , that several institutions still existing, and now of large influence in the educational world of the United States and Canada, had their origin in whole or in part in the desire to Christianize and to educate the aborigines, which object was mentioned in charters e.

It was succeeded by the College of William and Mary founded in with the aid of a benefaction of Robert Boyle , where Indian youth were boarded and received their education for many years. At the present time the most noteworthy institutions for the education of the Indian in the United States are the Chilocco Indian Industrial school, under government auspices, in Kay county, Oklahoma, near Arkansas city, Kansas; the Carlisle school government at Carlisle, Pa.

In there were in attendance members of 67 tribes, representing at least 22 distinct linguistic stocks. According to J. Dortch Handb. The Hampton Institute was established in by General S. Armstrong and trains both Negroes and Indians, having admitted the latter since There are two field-matrons and seven camp-school teachers, all coming into close touch with the more ignorant of the people. William Jones has his degrees of A. James Murie is assisting in similar work for the Field Museum in Chicago.

Hampton has but one Indian lawyer. There are about 50 students holding positions pretty steadily in government schools. About 40 boys have employment at government agencies, 20 being employed as clerks and interpreters, either at the agencies or at the schools. Ten boys are working in machine shops at the north and three are in the navy. A fair proportion are working on their farms; some have accumulated quite a little stock, and five are prosperous cattlemen, seven boys have stores of their own and make a good living from them. It is undenominational, aided by a government grant, and had in an average attendance of out of an enrolment of of both sexes.

The Mount Elgin Industrial Institute was founded by the Methodist Missionary Society in , and had an attendance for of of both sexes. The Brandon Industrial school, under Methodist auspices, had in an attendance of of both sexes. The Qu'Appelle Industrial school, under Roman Catholic auspices, had an average attendance of of both sexes. All these schools receive government aid.

As in the United States, Indian teachers and assistants are often employed when fitted for such labours. In the contract schools were practically abandoned and the Indian appropriation devoted to government schools altogether. Latterly some departure from this policy has occurred, following a decision of the Supreme Court. Of the government schools 25 were non-reservation and 90 reservation boarding schools, and day schools; of the mission schools 45 boarding and 3 day; of the contract schools 8 boarding and 6 public.

The schools of a denominational character belonged as follows: 29 to the Catholic Church, 5 to the Presbyterian, 4 to the Protestant Episcopal, 2 to the Congregational, 2 to the Lutheran, and 1 each to the Evangelical Lutheran, Reformed Presbyterian, Methodist, Christian Reformed and Baptist.

Besides there were in all public schools on or near reservations which Indians could attend. In Canada, according to the report of the Department of Indian Affairs for , there was a total of Indian schools day , boarding 55, industrial 22 , of which 45 were undenominational, 91 Church of England, Roman Catholic, 44 Methodist and 1 Salvation Army. The total enrolment of pupils was , with an average attendance of In several cases Indians attend white schools, not being counted in these statistics.

The intelligence of the American Indians north of Mexico ranges from a minimum with the lowest of the Athabaskan tribes of extreme north-western Canada and the lowest of the Shoshonian tribes of the south-western United States to a maximum with Indian talent and capacity. Here might be mentioned perhaps Sacajawea see Out West , xxiii. From these southern Athabaskans much is to be expected under favouring conditions. Of these may be mentioned: Hiawatha, statesman and reformer fl.

In , at the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church, a delegate representing both whites and Indians was Mark Arthur b. Miss Angel de Cora, a Winnebago, was in instructor in art at the Carlisle school. Curiously enough, some of the tribes at one time considered lowest in point of general intellectual equipment have shown not a little of this ability, and there is a marked difference in this respect between tribes belonging to one and the same stock.

The Athabaskan stock e. The Salishan stock has largely this same characteristic. Of these two peoples Mr C. And perhaps there are other stocks of which, if we knew them well, similar things might be said. If ways and means for the transfer of elements of culture indicate intelligence, some of these tribes must rank rather high in the scale. The Algonkian, Iroquoian and Muskogian stocks, both in the case of individuals and in the case of whole tribes or their remnants , have exhibited great ability in the directions indicated.

Some tribes of the Siouan stock have, both in the case of individuals and as peoples, given evidence of marked intelligence, especially in relation to psychic phenomena and the treatment of adolescent youth. In their culture, their ceremonies and ritual proceedings, as well as in their material arts, the Pueblos Indians of the south-western United States show, in many ways, their mental kinship with the creators and sustainers of the civilization of ancient Mexico and Central America. From the table of Indian tribes it will be seen that aborigines of the most diverse stocks have shown themselves capable of assimilating white culture and of adapting themselves to the new set of circumstances.

Progress and improvement are not at all confined to any one stock. A very interesting fact in the history of the education of the aborigines north of Mexico is the success of the attempt to Syllabaries. James Evans, a Methodist missionarv in the Hudson's Bay region from the study of the shorthand systems current at that time. The effect of this invention is thus described by Mooney Myths of the Cherokee , :—. An account of the remarkable adaptation of the syllabary to the language, it was only necessary to learn the characters to be able to read at once.

No school-houses were built and no teachers hired, but the whole Nation became an academy for the study of the system, until, in the course of a few months, without school or expense of time or money, the Cherokee were able to read and write in their own language.

An active correspondence began to be carried on between the Eastern and Western divisions, and plans were made for a national press, with a national library and museum to be established at the capital, New Echota. The missionaries, who had at first opposed the new alphabet on the ground of its Indian origin, now saw the advisability of using it to further their own work.

In spite of absurdities of form and position in the characters of this syllabary, it serves its purpose so well that, as Pilling informs us Amer. Folk , p. We even know of a young man who performed the feat in the space of two evenings. For a general list of authorities on the American aborigines, see bibliography under America , section 3, Ethnology. The literature on the subject, already vast, is continually increasing, and it is impossible to enumerate every contribution made by the large number of expert anthropologists working in this field.

The chief works of a special nature have already been cited in the text. In some languages vocalic changes, in others consonantal, have grammatical or semantic meaning. Hidden category: Subpages. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read Edit View history. Display Options. In other languages Add links. This page was last edited on 24 July , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Most of N. North America, between lat. Interior of Alaska and Canada; W.

On the N. California, S. Barbara Islands. In central N. California, W. In the coast region of central California, N. Greenland and some of the Arctic islands, the whole northern coast N. Asia W. North America in earlier times possibly considerably farther south. Interior of Alaska Rink ; in the region W. About 28,, of which there are in Greenland 11, Alaska 13,, Canada , and Asia The Queen Charlotte Islands, off the N. Ohio and Kentucky Boyle, Thomas.

About 40,, of which 10, are in Canada; of those in the United States 28, are Cherokee. On the coast and adjacent islands of S. On the coast in N. California Sonoma, Lake and Mendocino counties , W. About California; now on Klamath Reservation, Oregon, with a few also in Oklahoma. In central California, in three sections: the main area on the W. In the Gulf States, E.

Carolina, Florida and Louisiana; now mostly in Oklahoma. About 40,; of these 38, in Oklahoma, in Mississippi, in Florida, and a few in Louisiana. Practically extinct; in about 30 individuals still living, mostly on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande. California, E. In the region of the Columbia and its tributaries, in parts of Washington, Idaho and Oregon; between lat.

On the Pacific coast of S. California, from above S. Antonio, to below S. Louis Obispo; W. A large part of S. British Columbia Bilqula , and S. California and S. In the W. Foot-hills and plains E. United States or Canada, but residence in Plateau region long-continued. In the basin of the Missouri and the upper Mississippi; from about N. Oregon, in the middle valley of Rogue river, on the upper Rogue, and to about the California line or beyond.

Arizona, and another on the Rio Grande at the boundary line, partly in Mexico. In Florida, from the N. Nearly extinct; in only 78 individuals living; in but 47, with Ponkas in Oklahoma. British Columbia, on the Nass and Skeena rivers, and the adjacent islands and coast S. Umatilla and Grande Ronde rivers. Language practically extinct; Cayuse in only 6 spoke their mother tongue are still living; in about 20 Molalas.

Oregon, in the coast region and on the rivers from the Yaquina to the Umpqua. Georgia, on the Savannah river from above Augusta down to the Ogeechee, and also on Chatahoochee river; remnants now in Oklahoma. In the extreme S. Maurault, Hist.

American Woodland Indians

About in the Pit river region; also 50 or 60 on the Klamath Reservation, Oregon. Progress very slow; influence of schools felt. Klamath Achomawi under Methodist influence. Powers, Contrib. Methodist mission at Unalaska. Works in Russian of Veniaminov, ; Golder, Journ. Folk-Lore , ; Chamberlain, Dict. New Brunswick. Apparently increasing.

Writings of S. Rand; Chamberlain M. In Arizona, ; New Mexico, ; Oklahoma, Not rapidly decreasing as formerly thought. Cremony, Life among the Apaches ; Bourke, 9th Ann. Holding their own. Oklahoma Arapaho American citizens; progress elsewhere. Mennonite missions chiefly; also Dutch Reformed. Writings of Kroeber and Dorsey, Bull.

Field Columb. Morice, Anthropos , , and Ann. Ontario , , and other writings. Hoffman, Proc. Boas, Rep.

Steadily improving morally and financially. Anglicans, ; Catholics, ; pagans, All able-bodied Indians will soon be self-supporting. Presbyterians, ; Catholics, ; the rest pagan. Mooney, 14th Ann. Semi-sedentary and naturally progressive as Indians; improvements beginning to be marked. Under influence of Catholic mission at Stuart Lake, B. Morice, Proc. See Babines. Mowry, Marcus Whitman ; Lewis, Mem. Gibbs, Contrib. Missions on the Pacific Coast N. Oklahoma Cherokee citizens of the United States, and making excellent progress.

Various religious faiths. Royce, 5th Ann. Former increasing, latter decreasing. Southern Cheyenne citizens of United States; Mennonite mission doing good work. Americanists , ; Journ. Folk-Lore , ; Amer. Tooker, Algonquian Series N. Fairly laborious, but clinging to native customs, though making progress. Catholic mission influence. Writings of Morice see Carriers ; Farrand, Mem.

Ontario , Good progress. Many Indians quite equal to average whites of neighbourhood. A number of native ministers. Warren, Minn. Jones, Ann. Ontario , ; Hugolin, Congr. Quebec, ; P. Jones, Hist. Ojebway Inds. Rather stationary, but beginning to improve. Influence or Catholic mission and industrial school. Hill-Tout, Rep. Slow but steady progress except with a few bands.

Language selection

Catholics, Methodists and Anglirans strongly represented by missions and church members; many Presbyterians also. Ontario , ; Maclean, Canad. Folk Simms, Publ. Dakota Santee, Yankton, Teton — Sioux. Seemingly decreasing. Capable of and making good progress. Episcopal, Catholic, Congregational missions with good results. Riggs, Contrib. Folk-Lore , ; Eastman, Indian Boyhood Oklahoma, Delaware, U. Writings of Rink, Holm, Nansen, Peary. Rink, Tales and Trad. Packard, Amer.

Naturalist , ; Turner, 11th Ann. Boas, 6th Ann. Much improvement in parts since introduction of reindeer in Dall, Contrib. Hooper, Tents of the Tuski ; Dall, Amer. Naturalist See Eskimo Alaska. McDermott, Journ. Folk-Lore , ; Ronan, Flathead Indians Law-abiding, industrious and fast becoming more moral. Catholic, chief mission influence, also Presbyterian. Swanton, Contrib. Reached by Catholic missions. Matthews, Ethnogr. Self-supporting by agriculture and stock-raising. Presbyterian and Episcopal missions with good results.

Increasing, but losing somewhat by emigration. Dorsey, Trans. Practically civilized and making fair progress. Chiefly Catholics, but there is a Methodist school. Catholics and Methodists represented. Powell, 7th Ann. Folk-Lore , ; Lewis, Mem. Giorda, Kalispel Dictionary See Chehalis. Dorsey, 11th Ann. State Hist. Kansas Hist. Citizens of the U. At Flathead Agency, Montana, Holding their own, or increasing. Good, especially upper Kootenay; continued progress. Kootenay in U. Evidence suggests that those imprisoned without charge are largely Aboriginal people.

Although information for the east is sketchy, it appears that the situation is somewhat less gloomy. Federal penitentiaries, which confine persons sentenced to two years or more, house a smaller proportion of Native inmates than provincial prisons. This is understandable as the offences committed by Natives are usually of a less serious nature than those of non-Natives. Most statistics are collected by questionnaires on admittance to prisons. This self-report method is unreliable, and, as a result, official statistics often underestimate the true numbers of Native inmates.

In , government figures showed that 9. What has caused the catastrophic level of imprisonment of aboriginal people in this country? What can be done to attack this complex dilemma? In the past, justice officials attempting to understand the high incarceration rates of aboriginal people have viewed the situation as a still photograph, in isolation of causes and effects. Justice is a moral-laden concept, bound to a group's customs, religion, values, language, and history. Consequently, the investigation must be of sufficient scope to shed light on the connections between societies and their law.

In this analysis of Indians and justice, two concepts of "justice" will be reviewed to capture the essence of justice in two societies: Indian and White. Before Europeans arrived on the shores of this continent, the Indian nations kept peace in their communities, in their own way. The European colonies established and maintained social control for themselves through a formal system that they imposed on the Aboriginal peoples they encountered.

Inevitably, each concept was, and to some extent still is, used to define and evaluate the approach of the other system. Europeans typically divide and formalize justice into compartments, such as criminal law, civil law, proclamations, treaties, and Indian legislation. Indian societies maintained a general stance towards unacceptable behaviour, integrating religious taboos, hunting regulations, ceremonial procedure, morals, violations against people and property, into one cohesive, unwritten code of behaviour.

Thus, no complete history concerning Indians and justice in Canada can confine itself to the colonial and Canadian justice systems. What methods did Indian people use to prevent and deal with unacceptable behaviour in their own communities before contact with white men? How was white justice brought into this vast northland? Upon what principles and values was it based? How has this law been administered in relation to Indian people? What were the reactions to the imposition of a European justice model?

What role did the churches, the fur trade, the military, and the monarchies play in superimposing white justice? How did these new methods compare with traditional Indian law and enforcement? What effect is the high rate of imprisonment having on aboriginal people and their communities? What future directions are possible and positive? Is it possible and desirable to have an Indian justice system in Canada? Can we adopt a new system that renders equitable justice for all Canadians? Such complex questions require detailed analysis, and comprehensive answers. This book portrays traditional justice and its relation to Indian society for each major Indian nation, just before contact with Europeans.

It will depict the introduction and evolution of white law and its application to the aboriginal population for each region and era. This book will record the adaptations to European justice in the affected tribes. The relationships between economic, political and religious interests of the European powers to their justice systems will be discussed. Conflict between Indians and white justice will be revealed in its nature and extent, and will precede an explanation of the escalating rate of imprisonment in the last two decades.

Armed with this information, the reasons behind the "Indian problem" in justice will be more readily discernible, and will point the way to alternate strategies for positive change. The remaining chapters will examine the present from an historical perspective, and provide a range of approaches to resolving the problems encountered between aboriginal people and the Canadian justice system. The foundations of Canadian justice are ancient, and its relationship to the Canadian Indian dates back to the first contacts. The two groups, Indian and Caucasian, collided, as did their concepts and their embodiment of justice.

This time-honoured territory was subdivided into seven districts. Each contained family groupings clustered in small settlements as bases for hunting and fishing. Micmac government was three-tiered, with local, district and national chiefs or "sagamores. The local chief attained his position through both hereditary right and meritorious behaviour. The eldest son of a deceased chief was generally given first consideration as a successor. If found unfit for office despite special training, others in the family, and, if necessary others respected in the community, were considered.

Called second and third watchers, they would, if required, assume command from a sick or incompetent chief. The local chiefs would convene in a district council and select one of their number to preside over their meetings and represent the region's interests. These councils usually met in the spring or fall, and all decisions were based on unanimity. District sagamores made up the governing body of the Micmac nation, with one district chief acting as Grand Chief.

All three types of chieftainships followed bloodlines as a natural course of leadership ascendency. The Micmac expected their chief to be a man of intelligence, knowledge, dignity, courage, generosity, as well as an able hunter and fearless warrior. There was little confusion among the Micmac over what constituted proper behaviour, but enforcement and punishment appear to have varied.

Some procedures, however, were held in common. Murder was a heinous offence, and generally resulted in the death of the murderer. Once a murderer was identified, it appears that the elders' council and the chief usually passed sentence on behalf of the settlement, demanding a life for a life. If the assassin was a woman, the women of the village were at times called upon to act as executioners. The Micmac distinguished between murder, manslaughter and accidental death. This tale shows the difference:. He was wearing, as a disguise, antlers of bark, in imitation of a moose. He called again, and this time was sure that the answer came from a moose.

The other, who was in fact a man, saw the antlers in the bushes and shot at it.

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He heard a fall, and went over to look at his kill. He peeled off a piece of bark, lighted it, held it up as a torch, and saw a fallen man, shot through the heart. He carried the body home, and explained how the misadventure had happened. He was not punished. As a person's territory was his and his family's sole livelihood, trespassing was a serious offence. If the trespasser persisted after being warned, the person with recognized rights to the territory could attempt to rectify the situation. The offence may have been raised at the elders' council, which was responsible for allotting hunting and fishing territory.

The orphaned, the poor and the unfortunate were always relieved of suffering by others in Micmac society. The chief in particular was obliged to ensure the well-being of his people. If a traveller was hungry, he was welcome to enter a Micmac home if the owners were not there and take provisions without fear or shame. Thus, if a Micmac stole from another he was ridiculed and disdained for committing such an unnecessary act.

The matter was generally taken no further. The community respected elderly Micmac citizens and their families took care of them. When their suffering became extreme, or an old person was fading in body and spirit, a quick and painless end was made of their lives, or they were abandoned in the forest to free their souls. The Micmac were generally a peaceful nation, but conflict with other nations did exist, usually to avenge an injury.

If a person from a hostile tribe committed an offence against a Micmac, it was "forbidden them by the laws and customs of the country to pardon or to forgive any one of their enemies, unless great presents are given on behalf of these to the whole nation, or to those who have been injured. The chiefs and friends of the parties concerned generally settled minor disputes and violations of the Micmac code of behaviour. Settlement often took the form of presents to the injured party. For more serious offences, the victim's family was responsible for obtaining a just conclusion, the others in the village showing little excitement over the matter; the villagers would dwell upon the word "habenquedouic" which meant "he did not begin it, he has paid him back: quits and becomes good friends.

During the summer, social gatherings of many settlements were the opportunity for the formation of marriages. The host chief was aided by a "nudjialkatdegat ukcit maltewdj," or the "watcher of young people. Polygamy was permitted in Micmac society, but marriage and relations between sexes were sacredly guarded. The couple had to cohabit as brother and sister for the year and their relationship was carefully monitored.

Violation of this tradition of chaste behaviour was believed to risk great evil for all the villagers. Pre-marital sex brought disgrace on the woman and her family, but she might still have found a spouse despite her indiscretion. Marriage between siblings, cousins, uncles and nieces was forbidden. Although either party was free to end a marriage, adultery was a serious crime. The adulterers were frequently put to death.

The shaman was also influential in settling conflicts in Micmac society. Besides his spiritual duties, the Micmac believed the shaman had the power to prevent or end misfortune resulting from an infraction of a traditional rule. The shaman was thought to be able to discover the identity of a guilty party so that the culprit could be made to pay for his offence. Offenders were known to approach the shaman and confess, hoping to thwart disaster for the community.

An offender could repent and attempt to repay the victim for the harm and restore peace by offering an apology and presents. Acceptance of compensation likely rested with the offended party. A guilty party usually was resigned to the inevitability of just punishment. An offender might offer presents to his victim despite other punishment "to remove from the hearts of the victim all the bitterness caused by the crime of which he is guilty.

The Micmac in Nova Scotia used a type of penal colony at one time, but whether this existed before the European invasion is unclear. The phrase "devil's island" was used to describe these islands of banishment. Helen Martin, a Micmac of noble lineage, recalls that Chapel Island was used for this purpose. If a Micmac misbehaved, he was at times transported to the island for a few days to survive on his own. The offender was rescued by the settlement after he had time to learn the value of cooperation with his neighbours and the need for proper behaviour.

Every Micmac was encouraged to be seen as an ideal citizen in the eyes of his people. Respect flowed to the person who was generous, dignified, and kind to members of his nation and strangers alike. The Micmac "fear shame and reproach. Each band had its own recognized hunting grounds. A permanent tribal government structure did not exist. Only war was conducted under the direction of a general council. In times of peace each band selected a head man or chief who had little authority and was careful to act according to public opinion. The support of a council of respected hunters in each settlement was essential for a chief to intervene in important matters.

Elders instructed children at length to ensure their understanding of adult occupations, their environment, and the values and rules of Naskapi society. They were taught the necessity and methods of providing mutual assistance in their harsh climate, particularly during the winter months of isolation. The harsh environment in which the Naskapi survived influenced the way they lived. This, in turn, affected the rules of daily life and their enforcement. A system, for example, evolved as a means to indicate that a person needed assistance and to assure those in need that help was on its way.

Notched poles were set at the edge of a hunting territory, the pattern showing the type of emergency and the distance to the camp. Anyone noting these wooden pleas was required to lend assistance regardless of personal feelings towards those in trouble. Failure to help neighbours in need was believed to result in ill fortune in hunting through supernatural forces, and thus potential starvation. A traveller, whether Naskapi or stranger,suffering extreme hunger was free to take one-half of a food cache without the owner's prior permission or any immediate payment.

There appears to have been few forbidden activities and even fewer leading to the intervention of others between the parties concerned.

Conquest By Law

Only in murder and continued disturbance of the peace would the council and chief interfere in a formal way, and even then only upon the request of the injured party. The time of year and type of conflict would affect the selection of an outside party in the affairs of the individual in difficulty. If the dispute or offence occurred during the warm months when the band was gathered, or if the complainant could wait until summer, the chief was usually asked to intervene. When a complaint was brought forward, the accused was summoned before the chief and questioned.

The person was expected to answer truthfully, and generally did. If he attempted to deny the charge when obviously guilty, he was punished to a greater degree than if he had responded truthfully. Complaints were rarely acted upon unless the accused was clearly guilty before the hearing. In minor cases, the chief would judge the case in private, taking no counsel. If the offence was considered serious and a threat to the peace of the community, the council and chief heard the case together. Murder and manslaughter were grave offences.

There is no evident distinction between unintentional killing and murder in Naskapi philosophy. However, taking a life in self defence was not punished. Aiding another in committing a murder was a crime punishable to a lesser degree than murder itself. Giving shelter and food to a killer was not considered aiding in the offence, and was exempt from penalty. The victim's family was expected to avenge the death of their relative by taking the life of the murderer. Occasionally an offender was only wounded for taking a life, perhaps because of his status in the community or the circumstances surrounding the incident.

The chief and council only became involved if the victim had no living relatives who could exact punishment, or if the family neglected its duty and had to be reminded. A person injured by another generally sought his own satisfaction. He may have exacted payment, or used a shaman to punish the offender in a fashion to be described shortly. The settlement would show an interest in this kind of situation only if the injured man was unable to hunt because of the assault; in this event the offender was required to provide food and shelter for the victim.

The chief was frequently asked to intervene in trespassing offences. In a hunting society all life and goods flow from this one source. It was consistent for the Naskapi had strict rules against trespassing, particularly for hunting. The major exception was trespass by a person in need, who had the right to hunt to stave off starvation. On the first trespassing offence, the owner simply asked the interloper not to trespass again.

A person who abused this privilege or who trespassed continually was a life-threatening problem for the family with rights to the territory. The rightful holder of hunting rights noted the repeated trespasses throughout the hunting season. On returning to the settlement the injured party asked the chief to deal with the offender. Then, in order to give the wrongdoer an opportunity for repentance while not punishing him too severely the chief orders the offender to return to the owner of the land one-half the value of everything he took. The chief adds the warning, however, that if the trespasser repeats his offence the owner of the hunting-ground will be entitled to shoot him and explains that if during the coming winter the crime is repeated and the rightful owner kills the illegal trapper or hunter the owner will not be brought to account.

Theft was viewed with disdain by the Naskapi people; yet there was little punishment for theft. The thief was simply required to return the goods he stole. Arson and damage to another's hunting area was also cause for restitution. However, "theft" of another man's wife was a serious crime. If a chief even suspected that such an action was about to be committed, he would intercede by forbidding the man from proceeding with his plan. If the man did not heed the chief's advice, he might be bound or tied to a tree to try to force him to agree to abandon his plan.

Certain actions were not actively punished, but the parties quickly received a message of disapproval from their neighbours; sometimes this social ostracism became so great that the offender would emigrate. Incest, adultery and rape fell into this category. Husband or wife could initiate divorce, or desert the marriage. Desertion by the wife was considered less proper than desertion by the husband. The Naskapi believed in a sky God, and that spirits inhabited all things in their environment.

Various ceremonies and taboos were associated with appeasing the spirits. If the ceremonies and taboos were neglected or inadequate, sickness or other tragedy would befall the offender. Evil spirits were believed to exist and able to inhabit or replace the spirit of a human. Such a spirit was the "wiltigo," who could cause a person to become a cannibal. If a shaman was unsuccessful in ridding the person of this haunting spirit, then the sufferer was killed. The shaman was asked in the winter to intervene in disputes that could not wait until the summer gathering to be solved.

These disputes generally involved hunting violations. By doing so, a person forfeited his right to solicit anyone else to settle the matter. The shaman usually determined the facts of the case and public sentiment before deciding to represent one side in a conflict. Upon acceptance of a case, the shaman usually warned the accused that he was acting for the complainant; this caution was often sufficient to restore peace between the parties. If the offender persisted in his actions, the shaman asked his client to build a spirit house or "wapanon. The accused at times contracted with another shaman, and a battle of spirits took place between the shaman and their spiritual allies.

If the shaman and his spiritual allies for the accused were defeated, it was believed that the accused would either drop dead on the spot, or experience such ill-fortune that starvation would end his days. Persistent troublemakers were seen as threatening the community's peace. Accordingly, the whole community dealt with such behaviour. Expulsion is equal to a death sentence. The culprit is expelled from the protecting shelter of the band; his hunting ground is no longer respected; his life is made miserable since he is shunned by his fellow human beings; he is like a lonely wolf.

In summary, a Naskapi was expected to judge and control himself, and to have the power to deal with his own minor interpersonal problems. The individual had the liberty to live out his existence with the minimum of interference by persons with authority. During the winter months, the shaman was often solicited to arrange spiritual or supernatural intervention for the victim.

All knew the rules in Naskapi society, and these unwritten laws would only be upheld by powers outside the immediate family when absolutely necessary to guard the peace of the community. The European invasion of North America's east shore lasted years before occupation was complete. The forces of European expansion in the New World were the explorers, traders, missionaries, soldiers and agents of the Monarchies. By the time they wrested control of the east coast from its indigenous owners, the tribes were decimated by disease, war, liquor, and outright genocide. The authority of the Indian chiefs and councils was usurped.

Boundaries and affiliations between tribes dramatically altered with the presence of the white men. New definitions of morality and crime replaced traditional, just as the enforcers who upheld these foreign standards and laws undermined the old. The first white men known to have visited upper North America were the Norsemen. Lief Ericson unsuccessfully tried to found a colony in Nova Scotia around A. The settlement quickly fell into ruin because of internal squabbling [1] and hostilities with local Indians.

The contact between Indians and Europeans was so brief and modest that it slipped into mythology on both sides. The discovery of incredible numbers of fish off Newfoundland's shores and John Cabot's arrival in Newfoundland in marked the beginning of the European onslaught. Portuguese, French, English and Spanish arrived in increasing numbers to partake in the bounty. However, a century passed between Cabot's first visit and the successful establishment of permanent settlements. Contact between white men and Indians during the s was limited to forays ashore for supplies, minor trading, and explorations of the continent.

During this period there was little interference in the lives of the tribes, though white men's acts of marked brutality indicated what was to follow. The explorer Cartier provides an early example of European intentions. Cartier kidnapped Indians, including chiefs and children, who welcomed him, to learn more about the inhabitants of the new continent and to display them in Europe.

Cartier greeted the Micmac with a volley of gunfire. No sooner had peace been negotiated and solemnized by an exchange of presents, than a cross, bearing the inscription "Long Live the King of France," was planted on the shores of Micmac territory. The Chief of the district calmly reprimanded his new "friends," noting that all the land around was his, and that Cartier had "no right to set up this cross without his leave. Cartier was claiming territory for a European nation, and beginning the evolution towards war for the territory of all the eastern Indian nations.

In the early s drying replaced salting as the predominant method for preserving fish for the long voyage home. The improved technique made permanent coastal settlements necessary. At the same time growing European demand for American peltries furs inspired white intrusion further inland. These new economic interests fanned English and French competition and hostilities. The goods and liquor traded for furs laid the groundwork for economic dependence for the increasing number of Indians involved in the exchange. Economic dependence was a forerunner to the loss of the tribes' political and social control.

The expansion of the exorbitantly profitable fur trade depended upon exclusive colonial rights and efforts as territorial claims and settlement began in earnest. In , the King of France sent representatives to establish colonies: Jacques Cartier, the Captain General of the enterprise, and Msgr. In later voyages, the Captain General and other high-ranking officials had the right to administer justice for settlers in the new colonies. This first attempt to colonize New France was unsuccessful, but not without effect. Trying to salvage the plan, the French King issued monopolies to several individuals between and , when the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France was formed by Cardinal Richelieu.

Settlement remained small and stagnant until Louis XIV and his minister, Colbert, began serious imperialistic efforts in Supplies, soldiers and settlers poured into the region, [5] and the extensive seizure of Indian territory started. No one seemed to consider the ownership rights of the aboriginal people who thinly populated the region. Indian nations were important to Europeans only for military, commercial and religious reasons. The English, who were establishing their headquarters in New England, contested Acadia, or Nova Scotia, by importing their Indian allies, particularly the Mohawk, to battle the French and their Algonkian allies.

The Europeans and their imported conflict significantly altered tribal boundaries and contributed to the formation of new confederacies among some tribes. In ancient times, the Mohawk inhabited the east to the extent that they came into regular contact with the Micmac.

Mohawk and Micmac may once have been on friendly terms. The Montagnais shifted into this vacancy. The spread of English settlement in New England pushed the Abnaki, a nation residing in the region presently known as Maine, north in the s. The Abnaki, particularly the Penobscot, Malecite, and Passamoquoddy branches, joined forces with the other Indian Maritime nations aligned with the French.

Besides its defence functions, the confederacy established regulations for the tribes of the union, particularly for hunting and fishing territories. Each nation maintained its own laws and political structure. The Iroquois in a surprise gesture delivered a wampum belt to the Wabnaki confederacy and other eastern tribes sometime after , thus initiating the formation of a broader, but looser, confederacy.

This confederacy will be described in detail at a later point. The introduction of Christianity was a major influence in the creation of a confederacy of French-Indian allies. The Jesuits, emissaries of the Roman Catholic Church, provided a common link of religious affiliation that led to political alliance with the French monarchy. The missionaries played a significant role in spreading the tentacles of the French fur trade.

The French crown had bestowed half ownership in the fur trade to the Jesuits. When the first missionaries landed at Port Royal in Acadia Nova Scotia in , the interests of the Church were married to the interests of the French empire. The influence of the Roman Catholic Church in the east was consolidated among the Micmac when their Grand Chiefs converted. Grand Chief Membertou, who was converted in when well over a century in age, changed the role of the senior Micmac chief.

The Church had a Micmac representative in Grand Chiefs from this date forward. The Jesuit missionaries had substantial influence over the inhabitants of Nova Scotia or Acadia, during this time. The tribes of the east were rarely taught to read or write French, but were instructed in their own languages; as a result, for many decades the priests remained the sole source of information and interpretation of European activities and intent. The policy that only Indians who were baptized Catholic were allowed French guns and ammunition to protect their territory from the land-hungry British to the south provided additional incentive for Indian alliance with the Church.

Some Jesuits, such as Father Le Loutre, used their influence to encourage counterattacks against the British and were at times participants in the war against the "common enemy. The Church's concern about divorce illustrates the involvement of missionaries. The tribes of the east generally held that absolute fidelity was required in marriage.

But husbands and wives were free to leave or, in European terms, divorce their partner at will. The missionaries were appalled at the divorce rate among their Indian "charges," and determined to eradicate what was a mortal sin under Church edict. Generally, the woman was approached when it was learned that a couple had separated; threats of punishment were often used to encourage the wife to return to her husband.

On one occasion a woman was kept twenty-four hours without fire or blanket, and with scarcely any food. On another a woman who fled from her husband was threatened with being chained by the foot for four days and nights without food. Despite the Church's role in the definition and enforcement of certain crimes, the Micmac held on to many of their customs.

On occasion they showed resentment over the interference of missionaries and other Europeans in their way of life. For example, Father Le Clercq reported in his writings an incident concerning an elderly and hungry widow who refused to eat from the abundant meat supply of a young hunter; ancient custom forbid the widow to consume the meat under the circumstances, and she resisted all the missionaries' attempts to convince her to the contrary.

The epidemics that ravaged the eastern Indians throughout this era undermined the authority of the shaman, the traditional spiritual leaders. While shaman, chief and Indian citizen alike were dying by the hundreds from disease, the Jesuits remained in what appeared to be remarkable or unnatural health. The east coast tribes had long believed that shaman could cause death through supernatural powers. It was natural that when Catholic missionaries preached about revenge by God for evil behaviour, some Indians credited the epidemics to the missionaries as punishment for improper actions.

Spiritual leaders were not the only Indian people whose authority was undermined through contact with Europeans. Father Baird reported in that only two or three Micmac chiefs continued to have full influence in their districts. The chiefs' powers in the east were founded upon the voluntary support of the people. As foreign authority figures such as the priest and fur trader were introduced to Indian society, the Maritime Indian tribes no longer upheld all their chiefs' wishes and advice.

While the chiefs' authority waned, the elders' councils fared even worse. The councils first lost much of that function to the traders, and later to fur company managers as the fur trade became established. The Montagnais, for example, changed from holding their hunting territories in families or groups to individual ownership. The Micmac were subjected to the bulk of white settlement in the Maritimes during this era, and to the ravages of the European struggle for Nova Scotia.

The colony changed hands between the French and English six times from , when Sir William Alexander was granted the territory by the British Crown, until the Treaty of Utrecht in The English offered bounties for each Indian killed or taken prisoner. The going rate was ten pounds for the scalp of any Indian man, woman or child.

Liquor contributed significantly to the devastation of Indian settlements. Peaceful communities were shattered by beatings and even murders. Descriptions of this era are laced with tales of the consequences of liquor in the expansion of the fur trade. They do not call it drinking unless they become drunk, and do not think they have been drinking unless they fight and are hurt.

Immediately after taking everything with which they can injure themselves, the women carry it into the woods, afar off, where they go to hide with their children. After that they have a fine time, beating, injuring, and killing one another. The Maritime tribes appear to have interpreted the novel effect of alcohol in light of past experience; bizarre behaviour had always been viewed as the handiwork of an evil, supernatural agent. The debate between the French State and Church over ways to curb the destructive effects of liquor led to early encroachment of the Indians' right to handle their own problems.

State and Church invoked various proclamations and laws concerning liquor during the s and s, paving the way for special "Indian crime. If they refused to tell they were to be forbidden entry to French houses. If they were admitted, both French and Indians were to be punished. For an infringement of these restrictions a Frenchman was fined fifty francs, but the guilty Indians promised to remunerate him in peltries furs.

Attitudes hardened in legislation later in the 17th century. His Majesty's council authorized an attorney in to "arrest drunken Indians and compel them to name the French vendors. The eastern chiefs grew deeply anxious about the effects of alcohol, some joining with the Governor in It was said that the chief who spoke the law to his people knew that the Indians would not recognize French jurisdiction, so he assured them that all the chiefs spoke the law, and that they would be given over to the penalties of the French if they transgressed it.

At both Cadosassac and Three Rivers severe penalties for drunkenness were exacted throughout the period. There were complaints to the French Governor from Indians about this special legislation against them, as a drunken Frenchman could carouse unmolested by the authorities. The presence of white men in the Maritimes had other, equally serious, effects on traditional justice among the Indian nations.

Early volunteers were promised that they would not leave Scandinavia and that they would serve under native Norwegian officers - but after the German invasion of the Soviet Union they were deployed to the Leningrad front alongside Dutch and Latvian units, in the 2nd SS Infantry Brigade. These units combined to form the nucleus of a whole regiment within the new 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division 'Nordland.

Outclassed in materiel and outnumbered, LtGen Papagos's Greek army was so successful against the Italians in northwest Greece that, by 22 November , it was advancing into Italian-held Albania. This would eventually force Hitler to send in German reinforcements to support his beleaguered Italian allies, delaying his invasion of the Soviet Union.

Complete with contemporary photographs and full-color uniform plates, this fascinating study explores the history, organization, and appearance of the armies of this oft forgotten conflict. This book charts this progression, illustrating and explaining the forces of the key Catholic armies, while exploring the organization, tactics, and colorful uniforms of the cavalry forces as they were expertly wielded by the great captains of the period including Tilly, Conde and Gustavus.

When Hitler turned his attention to Stalin's Soviet Union, many of these men found themselves thrown into the fray. Croatian soldiers served at Stalingrad, fighting Tito's Partisans in the Balkans, and battling against the advancing Red Army in Hungary. In later years, as the British and the French came to expand their claims, they often came into conflict with the Spanish.

The Spanish also played a significant part during the American Revolution, fighting against the British and drawing off forces needed to fight the Americans. This book covers all of the North American Spanish forces that fought in the campaigns of the 18th century. The Naval Troops Troupes de la Marine were volunteers, and earned a reputation for greater toughness and hardiness than the conscripted Metropolitan Army.

Spread throughout the French Empire, Naval Troops in this period were characterized by very large infantry and artillery regiments based in France, mixed race regiments Regiments Mixtes , and entire native regiments raised in West Africa, Madagascar and Indochina.

The latter, the so-called 'Tirailleurs' were organized and led by officers and cadres from the Naval Troops, and wore very varied and colorful uniforms based on formalized versions of traditional local costumes. Officially known as the French State, it is better known as Vichy France. This collaborationist Vichy regime's armed forces were more active and usually more numerous than German troops in the task of hunting down and crushing the maquis -- the French Resistance guerrilla forces This book will cover the organization and operations of Vichy French Security Forces, including: the new Vichy Police Nationale, particularly their Groupes Mobiles de Reserve, the Service d'Ordre Legionnaire, and the Milice Francaise, a ruthless anti-Resistance militia armed partly with British weapons captured from SOE airdrops.

Fully illustrated throughout with contemporary photographs and commissioned artwork, it tells the story of Occupied France from the perspective of those who sought to keep it in German hands. Including new research, photographs of artifacts, and the signature Men-at-Arms artwork, this is an essential addition to the series and includes several artwork reconstructions of named individuals and two lavish scenes: Combat between Centurions, and, a Triumphal procession.

The men who spearheaded this expansion were the centurions, the tough, professional warriors who led from the front, exerted savage discipline and provided a role model for the legionaries under their command. This book, the second volume of a two-part study, reveals the appearance, weaponry, role and impact of these legendary soldiers during the five centuries that saw the Roman Empire reach its greatest geographical extent under Trajan and Hadrian, only to experience a long decline in the West in the face of sustained pressure from its 'barbarian' neighbors.

Featuring spectacular full-color artwork, written by an authority on the army of the Caesars and informed by a wide range of sculptural, written and pictorial evidence from right across the Roman world, this book overturns established wisdom and sheds new light on Rome's most famous soldiers during the best-known era in its history. To achieve this, he established an Imperial Fleet and raised new regiments of elite marine troops. This work provides a comprehensive, illustrated guide to the unit history and appearance of these men, who were at the cutting edge of the last great flourish of Byzantine naval power.

They won victory after victory in campaigns throughout the ss, and though successive periods of decline and partial resurrection followed, these marine units survived until the very last flickers of Byzantine resistance were extinguished. Drawing upon early literary sources, the rich evidence of period illuminated manuscripts, frescoes and other iconography, this details the lasting legacy of the swan song of Byzantine naval power. In popular culture these soldiers are often portrayed in a generic fashion, but continuing research indicates significant variations in Roman armor and equipment not only between different legions and the provincially-raised auxiliary cohorts that made up half of the army, but also between different regions within the empire.

With reference to the latest archaeological and documentary evidence this investigates how Roman Army units in the Western provinces were equipped, exploring the local influences and traditions that caused the variations in attire. In popular culture, these soldiers are often portrayed in a generic fashion, but continuing research indicates significant variations in Roman armor and equipment not only between different legions and the provincially-raised auxiliary cohorts that made up half of the army, but also between different regions within the empire.

In these wars, Roman soldiers had to fight in a range of different climates and terrain, from the deserts of the Middle East to the islands of the eastern Mediterranean. Using full-color artwork, this book examines the variation of equipment and uniforms both between different military units, and in armies stationed in different regions of the Empire.

Using evidence drawn from recent archaeological finds, it paints a vivid portrait of Roman army units in the Eastern provinces in the first two centuries of the Imperial period. During those years, no fewer than 51 men were proclaimed as emperors, some lasting only a few days.

Despite this apparent chaos, however, the garrisons of the Western Provinces held together, by means of localized organization and the recruitment of 'barbarians' to fill the ranks. They still constituted an army in being when Diocletian took over and began the widespread reforms that rebuilt the Empire - though an Empire that their forefathers would hardly have recognized. Fully illustrated with specially chosen color plates, this book reveals the uniforms, equipment and deployments of Roman soldiers in the most chaotic years of the Empire.

Descendants from a legendary line of warriors, the Varangian Guard was formed after a group of Viking mercenaries made a major contribution to the Byzantine Emperor Basil II's victory over rebel forces in AD. These 5, men were then retained as Basil's personal guard and would provide loyal service to many successive occupants of the imperial throne. Commonly referred to as 'foreigners' Etaireia , they were nonetheless absorbed into a new Palatine regiment under command of an officer termed the Akolouthos, who was either a Norsemen or a Rus Norsemen colonisers of Russia.

The Varangians wore mixtures of their native clothing and armor together with a splendid formal Byzantine uniform. But most famously, they always wielded their own traditional battle-axes and in fact this became a sign that the emperor was on the battlefield in person. This is an insightful look of one of the legendary guard units of the medieval world. During the course of the conflict, one of its main leaders - Maurice of Orange-Nassau - created an army and a tactical system that became a model throughout Europe.

This first of a two-part series focuses on the Dutch infantry. It examines how Maurice of Orange-Nassau attracted volunteers and students from across Europe, introduced innovative new training methods such as common drill movements, and standardized the organization and payment system of the army to make it more than a match for the occupying Spanish. His successes inspired officers and generals across the continent to copy his methods, including many English officers who went on to fight in the English Civil Wars.

Featuring full-color artwork and rare period illustrations, this book examines how the Dutch infantry was transformed into a fighting force able to defeat the might of Imperial Spain. The Dutch army created by Maurice of Nassau used innovative new tactics and training to take the fight to Spain and in so doing created a model that would be followed by European armies for generations to come.

Books at On Military Matters

The second in a two-part series on the Dutch armies of the 80 Years' War focuses on the cavalry, artillery, and engineers of the evolving armies created by Maurice of Nassau. Using specially commissioned artwork and photographs of historical artifacts, it shows how the Dutch cavalry arm, artillery, and conduct of siege warfare contributed to the long struggle against the might of the Spanish Empire.

An old fashioned territorial dispute, the contested area was the Gran Chaco Boreal, a ,square mile region of swamp, jungle, and pampas with isolated fortified towns. The wilderness terrain made operations difficult and costly as the war see-sawed between the two sides. Bolivian troops, under the command of a German general, Hans von Kundt, had early successes, but these stalled in the face of a massive mobilization programme by the Paraguans which saw their force increase in size ten-fold to 60, men.

Illustrated with rare photographs and especially commissioned artwork. It was the first great clash of 20th-century ideologies, between the rebel Nationalist army led by General Franco right-wing, and aided by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy , and the Republican army of the government left-wing, and aided by the Communist Soviet Union and many volunteers from liberal democracies. Three years of widespread campaigns involved the most modern weapons available. The war was fought ruthlessly by both sides, and when the Nationalists secured victory they installed a dictatorship that lasted until November - the last such regime in Western Europe.

Featuring specially commissioned full-color artwork, this first part of a two-part study depicts the fighting men of the Nationalist forces that strove to take control of Spain alongside their German and Italian allies. This title illustrates how diverse the Republican forces were, drawn from loyal elements of the Spanish army that rejected the appeal of the rebel generals, a wide range of volunteer regional units and political militias, and supported by volunteers from many other countries, including Great Britain, France and Germany, in units known as the International Brigades.

The wide range of equipment and uniforms worn by these troops is revealed, as is, the organization of militias into conventional brigades and divisions. Featuring specially commissioned full-color artwork, this second part of a two-part study depicts the fighting men of the Republican forces and examples of their foreign comrades.

Under the ambitious young Kaiser Wilhelm II, rivalry with the old colonial powers saw the protectorates originally established by trading companies transformed into crown colonies, garrisoned by the newly raised Schutztruppe with emergency support from the Imperial Navy's Sea Battalions. This book explains their organization and operations, including the horrific Herero campaign in Southwest Africa. It is illustrated with rare photos, and with color plates detailing a wide variety of the uniforms of German and native troops alike.

Beginning with a run through of the Chinese forces that combated the British and French during the two Opium Wars. This history goes on to trace the forces who were drawn into internal wars and rebellions in the s and 60s, the open warfare in North Vietnam, the string of defeats suffered during the First Sino-Japanese war and the Boxer Rebellion.

Providing an unparalleled insight into the dizzying array of troop types and unique uniforms, this is a history of the sometimes-painful modernization of China's military forces during one of her most turbulent periods of history. Drawing Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay into conflict the war was characterized by extraordinarily high casualty rates, and was to shape the future of an entire continent - depopulating Paraguay and establishing Brazil as the predominant military power. Despite the importance of the war, little information is available in English about the armies that fought it.

This book analyzes the combatants of the four nations caught up in the war, telling the story of the men who fought on each side, illustrated with contemporary paintings, prints, and early photographs. It is also known as the 'Saltpeter War' or the 'Guano War' because the possession of these two highly profitable nitrates was the main cause of the conflict. By the s Chilean military superiority and expansionist policies exploded into full scale conflict. This book examines the troops, uniforms, and equipment used by the Chilean, Peruvian, and Bolivian forces and traces the events of the war from the early naval blockades, through major pitched battles, to the final guerilla campaign in occupied Peru.

The war ended in total victory for Chile, and that country's military emergence thereafter as 'the Prussia of South America', while it cost Peru some lucrative provinces and Bolivia its outlet to the Pacific coast. Two decades later, it was a nation united under a single king and government, thanks largely to the efforts of the Kings of Sardinia and Piedmont, and the revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi. This book, the first of a two-part series on the armies that fought in the Italian Wars of Unification, examines the Piedmontese and Neapolitan armies that fought in the north and south of the peninsula.

Illustrated with prints, early photos and detailed commissioned artwork, this book explores the history, organization, and appearance of the armies that fought to unite the Italian peninsula under one flag. The crown was claimed by both his daughter Isabella, backed by the Liberal party and his brother Don Carlos, at the head of northern ultra-conservatives centered in the Basque provinces and Navarre.

With both armies still using Napoleonic weapons and tactics, early victories were won by the Basque general Zumalacarregui. After his death in , a see-saw series of campaigns followed, fought by conventional armies of horse, foot, and guns, and supported by many irregulars and guerrillas. These conflicts saw foreign interventions and shifting alliances among minor states, and attracted a variety of local and foreign volunteers. This second volume in a two-part series covers the armies of the Papal States; the duchies of Tuscany, Parma, and Modena; the republics of Rome and San Marco Venice ; the transitional Kingdom of Sicily; and the various volunteer movements.

These varied armies and militias wore a wide variety of highly colorful uniforms which are brought to life in stunning, specially commissioned, full color artwork. Invading armies from Germany - the Holy Roman Empire - saw the creation of the defensive Lombard League of northern Italian city-states. These struggles resulted in conflicts between rival confederacies, which in turn proved to be the catalysts for developments in organization and tactics.

Italian urban militias became better organized and equipped, the Imperial armies went from being mostly German to multinational forces, and both sides became reliant on mercenary forces to prosecute their wars. After the s, France, relying mainly on armored cavalry, and Spain, with their innovative light infantry, vied for control of southern Italy. On the seas, the great naval powers of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice became fierce rivals, as they created great trading empires, bringing the treasures of the east into feudal Europe.

Using detailed color plates, this book describes the myriad of armies and navies that fought for control of Italy in the Middle Ages. But Peter the Great of Russia showed steadfast determination, and Charles overreached himself when he invaded Russia in ; the Russians adopted classic 'scorched earth' tactics until they could destroy the Swedish army at Poltava in , one of the most overwhelming victories in history. Nevertheless, Sweden continued to fight, and frequently win, in Germany, Denmark and Norway, until Charles's death in battle in , though the war itself did not conclude until Contains accurate full-color artwork.

This day period proved entirely unrealistic and was followed by further, and much more extensive, mobilizations. Despite this, for the first few months the defense of the Capitol depended heavily on a hastily gathered, but extremely loyal, army of militiamen and volunteers. Mostly inexperienced, poorly trained, weakly officered, and provided with motley uniforms, equipment, and weapons, they bought the Union time during the vital first months. Through a wide range of period sources, this title describes and illustrates the actual appearance of this diverse and colorful force, including photographs, eyewitness accounts in period newspapers and letters, the reports of government agents, and the records of the many manufacturers who received orders to clothe and equip their state troops.

Some , Australians volunteered for active duty, an astonishing 13 per cent of the entire white male population, a number so great that the Australian government was never forced to rely on conscription.